Categorising proactive recipient processes to feedback.

Winstone et al. (2016) analysed 195 research outputs to provide a taxonomy of feedback recipient processes which might lead to better engagement with feedback.

Characteristics and behaviour of the receiver:

1. Understand the purpose of feedback and recognise how they can facilitate their individual progress themselves

2. Understand their own responsibility in failure and/or inability to complete an assignment to high standards 

3. Have high self-efficacy, i.e. the belief they can improve if they try

4. Be able to self-regulate 

5. Engage in self-assessment and setting goals for improvement. The goals can refer to academic progress or skills, demonstrate evidence of critical thinking, for example. 

6. Have the belief that the sender of feedback is credible, i.e. have great knowledge of the subject matter, can also increase engagement with feedback  

7. Have the ability for self-appraisal of one’s strengths and weaknesses, not including academic ability 

8. Have assessment literacy, i.e. ability to (a) understand the relation between assessment and learning, and what is expected from them; (b) appraise one’s own and others’ work against implicit or explicit grading criteria; (c) understand the terminology and concepts used in feedback; and (d) know suitable techniques for assessing and giving feedback, and when to apply these techniques

9. Have motivation and show engagement, a state which requires a form of pre-engagement, i.e. being committed to change and development: a readiness to engage.

Naomi E. Winstone, Robert A. Nash, Michael Parker & James Rowntree (2017) Supporting Learners’ Agentic Engagement With Feedback: A Systematic Review and a Taxonomy of Recipience Processes, Educational Psychologist, 52:1, 17-37, DOI: 10.1080/00461520.2016.1207538

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